Water And Wastes Digest Features Electro-Chemical Devices

INSTRUMENTAL KNOWLEDGE

This article originally appeared in Water & Wastes Digest February 2020 issue as “Instrumental Knowledge”

The accurate process measurement of free chlorine, total chlorine and chlorine dioxide is essential to the successful operation of municipal and industrial water treatment systems that rely on this chemical for water disinfectant purposes, bleaching, corrosion prevention and other functions. Chlorine helps eliminate algae, bacteria, viruses, scale and other contamination in the treatment of both municipal drinking water and wastewater.

One of the most important things that all municipal and industrial systems have in common is their reliance on liquid analyzers to assure the maintenance of proper chlorine levels. Accurate, reliable analytical process measurement ensures public safety, protects plant equipment, increases quality, reduces maintenance, extends plant equipment life and lowers total costs.

Municipal Water & Wastewater

The majority of U.S. municipal water treatment systems disinfect their water using some type of chlorine-based process, either alone or in combination with other disinfectants.

Common pathogens including E. coli are controlled with chlorination, but failing to monitor or consistently maintain chlorine levels can result in less than appropriate disinfection levels and lead to disease outbreaks with devastating public health consequences.

Industrial Processes & Plants
Chlorine is also a common industrial bleaching agent in paper production and disinfectant in food and beverage plants, as well as providing oxidation control in chemical processing and other industrial operations including pharmaceuticals and textiles. The measurement of chlorine is important both in assuring the quality of water for cooling towers at petrochemical refineries and electric power generation plants to remove microorganisms, algae and biofilm in cooling water.

What is Free Chlorine?
Chlorine gas and/or sodium hypochlorite (bleach) are the common sources of chlorine in water. Both types form the same compounds when introduced to water: hypochlorous acid, HOCl, and hypochlorite, CIO—. The percentage of each component in solution is dictated by the pH of the solution. At roughly a pH level of 7.5, the ratio is 1:1. If the pH drops to 6.5, then the acid form is favored with 90% HOCl and 10% CIO—. At a pH level of 8.5, the alkaline form predominates as 90% CIO— and 10% HOCl.

Hypochlorous acid has roughly 10 times the oxidizing power of hypochlorite. These two types of chlorine are referred to as free chlorine. Other chlorine compounds may be present in the treated water as well, with organically bound chlorine and chloramine being the most common. These compounds are referred to as combined chlorine.

What is Total Chlorine?
Total chlorine is the sum of free chlorine and combined chlorine. The “combined chlorine” is typically referred to as what is “used-up” or “left-over” after disinfection. This residual amount is what is usually attributed as the cause for that bad smell in poorly treated pool water, which also can result in red eyes and burning skin. High total chlorine levels are an indicator that the water treatment disinfection system needs more free chlorine to do its job.

What is Chlorine Dioxide?
Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) is a chemical compound consisting of one chlorine atom and two oxygen atoms. It is a gas at room temperature that dissolves in water. It is used for a variety of antimicrobial uses, including drinking water disinfection, bleaching of paper and foods, corrosion control and sterilization. The U.S. EPA regulates the maximum concentration of chlorine dioxide in drinking water to be no greater than 0.8 parts per million (ppm).

Why & How is Chlorine Measured?
Chlorine is used primarily as a disinfectant or oxidizer or sanitizer; and, for best results, the levels must be monitored online, typically with a chlorine sensor. The chlorine is consumed as it disinfects, which is referred to as chlorine demand. To maintain the disinfection, a residual is needed. As such, the dose minus the demand equals the residual.

Free residual chlorine must be measured and controlled because it is an important aspect of keeping maintenance costs in line. The key to successful use of chlorine is in maintaining the right concentration. A chlorine concentration that is too high injects unnecessary costs into a process. Overly low levels of chlorine mean the process is not accomplishing the disinfection or other process goal and the process is ineffective.

Feedback in real time is critical with regard to how closely a process is maintaining the optimum levels of chlorination that are required. Concentration control of free chlorine at optimum levels means effective dosing occurs with no spikes or valleys that result when manual testing is performed. Additional benefits of online chlorine monitoring include:

  • Lower chlorine usage. It is an expensive chemical to source given the amount of energy required to produce chlorine;
  • Reduced maintenance needs by ensuring the process adheres to best practices; and
  • Good environmental stewardship.
    Process and plant engineers need free chlorine analyzer systems that measure precisely and are cost effective to install and maintain. The two major types of instruments for the measurement of free chlorine are colorimetric tests and amperometric analyzers.

There are two types of colorimetric tests. The manual test method is similar to a swimming pool test. The automated colorimetric test requires a sample system and reagents. Colorimetric tests are EPA approved for reporting purposes, but they are not real time measurements that are the best suited for accurate process control.

Amperometric analyzers feature a rugged chlorine sensor that is automatically compensated for pH. There are also multiple manufacturers of amperometric analyzers with many different models, as well.

 

Read the full article here: https://www.wwdmag.com/chlorinechloramines/instrumental-knowledge

New ECD TOC Analyzer Monitors Glycol At Airports and Industrial Plants

NDR Technology Enhances Measurement Accuracy and Reliability

 

Anaheim, CA—February 25, 2020—Those responsible for managing wastewater run-off treatment from commercial or private airports, aerospace industry facilities, military bases and chemical processing plants will want to learn more about how the advanced Total Organic Carbon (TOC) Analyzer from Electro-Chemical Devices (ECD) helps them manage ethylene glycol and other waste streams to safeguard water resources.

While primarily used for industrial process and manufacturing applications, ethylene glycol is key component in de-icing solutions for aircraft and airport runways during cold winter months. It is also found in automotive anti-freeze, coolant and brake fluids.

With its non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) detection technology, ECD’s TOC Analyzer helps pollution control engineers know that their wastewater treatment job is complete and that treated water effluent is ready for re-use or release.  Installing this analyzer helps facilities meet regulatory compliance requirements for treated facility storm or plant water with high confidence.

TOC analyzers measure the carbon in the organic matter that is nearly always present in water, whether it is surface water, ground water or treated industrial wastewater. Measuring TOC levels can be an important process variable when monitoring and controlling organic matter in water with residual glycol and other hydrocarbon pollutants.

There are many Industries and applications for ECD’s TOC Analyzer.  They include drinking water, feed and cooling water in manufacturing, facility runoff water and wastewater being discharged to the environment where an accurate and reliable TOC measurement is required to protect the water supply.

ECD’s TOC Analyzer is a full-featured instrument that utilizes the UV persulfate oxidation sensing method, which detects generated carbon dioxide (CO2) using its highly stable NDIR detector for analysis.   This method and the analyzer conform to: US EPA, DIN, CE, ASTM and NAMUR regulations, as well as ISO.

ECD’s TOC Analyzer is simple to use: the water sample is first acidified and then sparged to remove inorganic carbon.  The remaining liquid is mixed with sodium persulfate and digested by two high-performance reactors.  The resulting CO2 is then stripped from the liquid and, after drying, its concentration is measured by the NDIR analyzer. The analyzer measures TOC’s ranging from 0-5 mg/L to 20,000 mg/L, indicating the presence of glycol.

The advanced design of ECD’s TOC Analyzer features a valve-free sample line, which largely eliminates blockages. The analyzer’s auto clean, auto-calibration and auto-validation functions guarantee correct, reliable values that can be reproduced at any time without the need for manual intervention.

In comparison to conventional analyzers where the flow is controlled by a glass tube rotameter, the carrier gas flow with the ECD TOC Analyzer is controlled digitally. The flow is monitored via built-in smart diagnostics and if an abnormal value is detected, the analyzer stops automatically and displays a warning alert.

The rugged ECD TOC Analyzer is housed in a dual compartment enclosure.  The water sample components are in one compartment, and the electronics are located in a second compartment for safety and highly reliable operation.  The analyzer compartment is rated IP54, NEMA 3, and conforms to EN610004-2, EN610004-4, C46-022, EN 55022 and EN 61326.

The highly intuitive TOC Analyzer features a user touchscreen display located on the front of the analyzer.  All output/input data, status information, alarms and fault conditions are shown on the display.  Simply pressing the touchscreen buttons provides access to commands and settings.  The system is password protected for security.

TOCs in wastewater are regulated by the US EPA, state and local water quality standards. Many other industries rely on TOC measurement for analysis of wastewater prior to discharge. In addition, the power generation industries rely on TOC measurements for water quality concerning cooling water, condensate and boiler feed water.


About ECD Analyzers

ECD Analyzers is a subsidiary of Electro-Chemical  Devices, Inc., which is a manufacturer of liquid analytical process instrumentation. Founded in 1977, ECD has been in business for over 40 years and has built its industry leading reputation by its commitment to customers through this basic approach: Provide quality products, develop technical innovations and provide responsive, knowledgeable service.

 

ECD Company Contact: Eric Kim ● ECD Address:  1500 N. Kellogg Dr., Anaheim, CA 92807 USA

Web:  www.ecdi.com ● Email: sales@ecdi.com ● Tel: 800-729-1333 Tel: 714-695-0051 ● Fax: 714-695-0057

Editor’s Contact: Randy Brown ● Tel: 909-223-6700 ● Email brownr@rbmarketing.com

Versatile CA-6 Colorimetric Analyzer Designed To Monitor Phosphates or Total Phosphates

 

Ideal for Industrial or Municipal Wastewater Treatment

Anaheim, CA—November 19, 2019—Designed with an advanced modular sensing element, the versatile CA-6 Colorimetric Analyzer Series from Electro-Chemical Devices (ECD) gives users the option of choosing to measure either phosphates or total phosphates and other parameters over a wide range depending on their process requirements.

The measurement of phosphates and total phosphates is useful in a variety of  industrial and municipal wastewater treatment applications.  Phosphates and total phosphates are commonly measured before the release of treated wastewater effluent from power and chemical plants where they occur in boiler feed water and cooling water systems.  In addition, they are measured in municipal drinking water and sewage treatment plants.

While phosphorus is naturally present in the environment and used in the fertilization of agricultural crops, it is a danger to the sensitive aquatic plants found in surface waters such as streams, rivers, ponds, lakes, etc.  Phosphate pollution is a serious concern, and it is monitored by governmental authorities around the globe to protect plant life, animals and humans from the effects of over-exposure.

The CA-6 Colorimetric Analyzer Series for phosphates and total phosphates from ECD helps wastewater treatment engineers to measure these parameters accurately and reliably.   The CA-6 Series Analyzer is an on-line sequential sampling type of analyzer.  It automatically samples, analyzes and then processes results. The colorimetric method of water analysis relies on an LED light source and a heated colorimetric cell designed for measuring trace amounts of an analyte in the water, which is equivalent to the phosphate levels present.

The CA-6 Analyzer measures phosphates and total phosphates over a wide range depending on the user’s application process requirements and the chosen sensor configuration type and size.  The CA-6’s phosphate and total phosphate measurement ranges vary from trace ug/L levels to 2000 mg/L (0.01 to 2000 ppm) using the internal distribution mode.  Accuracy of measurement is ±5 ppb or 5 percent, whichever is greater.

The CA-6 Analyzers are easy to start up and use.  They come factory pre-calibrated right out of the box from ECD.  Technicians simply connect the sample, waste and reagent lines and then power up the device.  Wall-mounting hardware is standard, but an optional benchtop configuration also is available.  The standard model is recommended for indoor use and rated NEMA IP54 for dust and water ingress.  The operating temperature range of the CA-6 Analyzer is 41 to 113°F (5 to 45°C).

The CA-6 Colorimetric Analyzer for phosphates and total phosphates is equipped with an easy-to-read graphic touchscreen interface showing measured values and status information. It provides users with easy access to highly intuitive menus and functions in multiple languages. There is an integrated data logger onboard with USB download capability for history tracking, documentation and regulatory compliance purposes.

The CA-6 Colorimetric Analyzer is designed with two compartments that separate critical electronics from the wet process.  It includes all of the components required for the flowing, mixing and reaction stages of the sample and reagents. Numerous analysis configurations can be programmed, depending on accessories and of the number of micro pumps mounted in the liquids compartment.

The top section contains the electronics enclosure. It includes the main power supply, the controller PCB assembly and the touch screen interface.  Outputs provided with the CA-6 Analyzer include two 4-20 mA outputs for measured data, and it also includes a Modbus compatible RS485 RTU.  Four programmable SPDT relays are available to provide multiple alarm capabilities.

Highly cost-effective, the CA-6 Analyzer for phosphates and total phosphates features an adjustable cycle time to minimize reagent usage and to lower maintenance requirements. Automatic validation, cleaning and calibration are standard features, which significantly reduce downtime and operator intervention while ensuring the most accurate results are obtained.


About Electro-Chemical Devices

Electro-Chemical Devices (ECD) is a manufacturer of liquid analytical process instrumentation. Founded in 1977, ECD has been in business for over 40 years and has built its industry leading reputation by its commitment to customers through this basic approach: Provide quality products, develop technical innovations and provide responsive, knowledgeable service.

 

ECD Company Contact: Eric Kim ● ECD Address:  1500 N. Kellogg Dr., Anaheim, CA 92807 USA

Web:  www.ecdi.com ● Email: sales@ecdi.com ● Tel: 800-729-1333 Tel: 714-695-0051 ● Fax: 714-695-0057

Editor’s Contact: Randy Brown ● Tel: 909-223-6700 ● Email brownr@rbmarketing.com

New CA900 Fluoride Analyzer’s All-in-One Design Preconditions Sample for Reliable Measurement

Versatile Analyzer Supports Municipal and Industrial Water & Effluent Treatment

Anaheim, CA—October 22, 2019—With its all-in-one design, the versatile CA900 Analyzer from  Electro-Chemical Devices (ECD) delivers continuous,  accurate measurement of fluoride in aqueous solutions to support a wide range of municipal water and industrial plant process and effluent treatment applications.

The dependable CA900 Fluoride Analyzer’s unique all-in-one design eliminates the need for additional water sample pretreatment equipment, reducing installation complexity, maintenance tasks and lifecycle costs. This advanced design is based on ECD’s rugged industrial grade ion selective electrode measurement technology.

Fluoride (F) is derived from common fluorine, which is naturally and widely found in the earth’s crust.  Low concentrations of fluoride also occur in sea water, rivers and rain.  It is well known as a municipal drinking water additive to promote dental health, as well as in tooth pastes, mouth washes and some medicines.  This useful chemical also has a variety of industrial uses including hydrofluoric acid, semiconductor etching, glass frosting and in the production of specialty materials such as Teflon, textiles and insecticides.

The CA900 Fluoride Analyzer’s mixing chamber contains fluoride ion electrodes and pH electrodes for measurement purposes. It features automated titration technology. A TISAB reagent is flowed to provide an ionic strength adjustment to the liquid sample, breaking down weak complexes formed with fluoride and other metals, such as aluminum or iron, prior to the actual fluoride concentration measurement.  A pH compensation technique is employed along with special algorithms to provide accurate fluoride measurement across multiple pH ranges.

With its rugged construction, the CA900 Fluoride Analyzer operates in challenging environments from 0 to 50°C (32 to 120°F).  It offers a wide measurement range from 0.1 to 200 mg/l (0.1 to 200 ppm).  Highly dependable, it features accuracy of ±100 ppb, or 5% of measurement, or whichever is greater and repeatability of ±2% for consistent measurement.

Featuring auto calibration, the CA900 Fluoride Analyzer offers users a choice of two pre-set levels to choose from–either 1 ppm or 10 ppm on its touch screen display.  The touch screen display and 4-20 mA outputs then indicate total fluoride and the pH value.

The CA900 Fluoride Analyzer is housed in two separate moisture resistant NEMA 4X, IP65 type enclosures with lockable doors for security.  The top compartment houses the electronics safely away from the liquids, including the main power supply, the controller PCB assembly and an easy-to-read graphical touch screen display.  The lower compartment includes all the liquid components involved in collecting the sample and flowing the reagent, mixing the solution and then final measurement.

The CA900 Fluoride Analyzers are easy to start up and use. Simply connect the sample, waste and reagent lines, and then power up the factory calibrated analyzer. Wall mounting hardware is standard but an optional benchtop stand with reagent holder is also available.

Accessing information or customizing an analysis routine are accomplished with the display’s simple, user friendly menu structure and touch screen interface. The analyzer features full data logging and is web enabled for remote monitoring and interfacing with personal handheld devices and computers.

The CA900 Fluoride Analyzers can be powered either as 100/230 VAC or 50/60Hz via its selector switch.  It includes four 4 to 20 mA outputs, four configurable SPDT relays and serial output.  The unit’s four SPDT relays can be set from 15A to 250VAC

In addition to the CA900 Analyzer, ECD also offers its direct insertion S80 Ion Fluoride Sensor and T80 Transmitter. The identity of the sensor, measurement type and serial number are stored in the sensor’s digital memory along with three calibration registers.   When the S80 Fluoride Sensor is connected to the T80 Transmitter, it becomes a powerful liquid analyzer. It measures free fluoride ions from 0.02 to 2,000 ppm in the optimum range level of 5-8 pH.


About Electro-Chemical Devices

Electro-Chemical Devices (ECD) is a manufacturer of liquid analytical process instrumentation. Founded in 1977, ECD has been in business for over 40 years and has built its industry leading reputation by its commitment to customers through this basic approach: Provide quality products, develop technical innovations and provide responsive, knowledgeable service.

 

ECD Company Contact: Eric Kim ● ECD Address:  1500 N. Kellogg Dr., Anaheim, CA 92807 USA

Web:  www.ecdi.com ● Email: sales@ecdi.com ● Tel: 800-729-1333 Tel: 714-695-0051 ● Fax: 714-695-0057

Editor’s Contact: Randy Brown ● Tel: 909-223-6700 ● Email brownr@rbmarketing.com

ECD Family of HYDRA-DS Analyzers Simplify Nitrogen (Nutrients) and Ammonium Measurement

Accurate Monitoring of Wastewater Treatment Effluent and Surface Water Storage

Anaheim, CA—September 26, 2019—Developed with advanced ion selective electrode (ISE) sensor technology and a highly intelligent transmitter, the family of HYDRA-DS Analyzers from Electro-Chemical Devices (ECD) simplifies the accurate measurement of harmful nitrogen (nutrients) and ammonium to maintain water quality in a wide range of environments.

HYDRA-DS Nitrate Analyzers

The HYDRA-DS Nitrate Analyzers are designed to monitor the nitrification process directly in a wastewater treatment plant’s aeration basin or clarifier unit. Its advanced sensor uses ISE technology to measure the Nitrate. Also featuring a self-compensating design, the HYDRA DS automatically eliminates Chloride ion interference for high accuracy and reliability.

The HYDRA-DS Nitrate Analyzers measure the concentration of dissolved nitrate as nitrogen (NO3-N) in water. The sensor uses two electrodes to determine the NO3-N concentration, a nitrate ion electrode and a chloride ion electrode. It is designed for use in all kinds of water ranging from municipal and industrial wastewater treatment.

For example, nitrogen typically enters a municipal wastewater treatment plant as ammonia/ammonium compounds. Nitrification oxidizes the toxic ammonium ion into a much less toxic nitrate ion using an aerobic activated sludge process. De-nitrification reduces the nitrate ion (NO3) to nitrogen gas (N2) by an anoxic reaction in the same treatment basin or in a separate anaerobic digester. The NO3-N measurement can optimize the methanol being fed to the digester, minimizing cost, and also provides a trend of the total nitrogen in the effluent.

The nitrate ion electrode performs the primary measurement. A second electrode measures the chloride ions in the sample. The chloride ion, because of its similar size and charge to the nitrate ion, causes a positive interference in the measurement. The chloride ion electrode measures the amount of chloride ion present in the sample and the intelligent transmitter subtracts the appropriate amount of signal from the nitrate measurement.

The HYDRA-DS sensor rapidly measures NO3-N and NH4-N from 0.1 to 14,000 ppm with a response time of 1 minute (T90) and an accuracy of ±3% of reading, dependent on calibration.  It operates over a wide temperature range from 32 to 122°F (0 to 50°C).  Its highly intelligent transmitter includes an easy-to-read backlit display and comes with two 4-20mA outlets and three SPDT alarm relays.  An integral automated sensor spray cleaner reduces biofilms to enhance accuracy and reduce sensor maintenance.

HYDRA-DS Ammonium Analyzers

The HYDRA-DS Ammonium Analyzer is designed to monitor the nutrient load (NH4+) directly in the aeration basin of a wastewater treatment plant. Its powerful sensor uses ISE technology to measure the ammonium, potassium and pH levels. Its self-compensating design automatically compensates for the pH-dependent concentration equilibrium and potassium ion interference on the ammonium electrode.

The ammonium sensor measures the concentration of dissolved ammonium as nitrogen (NH4+-N) in water. The sensor uses three electrodes to determine the NH4+-N concentration, an ammonium ion electrode, a potassium ion electrode and a pH electrode. It is designed for use in all kinds of municipal wastewater or wherever ammonium is present in water.

The ammonium ion electrode performs the primary measurement. Any potassium ion in the sample, however, generates a positive interference in the measurement because of its similar size and charge to the ammonium ion.  The HYDRA-DS Analyzer’s highly intelligent transmitter self-compensates by adjusting the signal for this potassium interference and eliminates it from the measurement of ammonium for superior accuracy and reliability.

The ammonium ion electrode measures the ammonium ion (NH4+), not ammonia (NH3).  The ammonium ion and ammonia coexist in a pH dependent ratio in solution. The more acidic pH values favor the NH4+ and the more basic values favor dissolved ammonia gas, NH3. The pH electrode measures the pH level, and the transmitter calculates the total NH4+-N concentration based on the pH versus the NH4+ concentration profile stored in the instrument.

The HYDRA-DS Analyzer rapidly measures NH4+-N from 0.1 to 14,000 ppm with a response time of 1 minute (T90) and an accuracy of ±3% of reading, dependent on calibration. It also operates over a wide temperature range from 32 to 122°F (0 to 50°C).  Its intelligent transmitter also includes an easy-to-read backlit display and comes with two 4-20mA outlets and three SPDT alarm relays.  An integral automated sensor spray cleaner reduces biofilms to reduce sensor maintenance.


About Electro-Chemical Devices

Electro-Chemical Devices (ECD) is a manufacturer of liquid analytical process instrumentation. Founded in 1977, ECD has been in business for over 40 years and has built its industry leading reputation by its commitment to customers through this basic approach: Provide quality products, develop technical innovations and provide responsive, knowledgeable service.

 

ECD Company Contact: Eric Kim ● ECD Address:  1500 N. Kellogg Dr., Anaheim, CA 92807 USA

Web:  www.ecdi.com ● Email: sales@ecdi.com ● Tel: 800-729-1333 Tel: 714-695-0051 ● Fax: 714-695-0057

Editor’s Contact: Randy Brown ● Tel: 909-223-6700 ● Email brownr@rbmarketing.com